The subject of a Pediatric Nephrologist pertains to the study of urinary tract diseases. Among those pathologies, a lot of conditions are identified already from a fetus’ endometrial life, and for this reason, a Pediatric Nephrologist is required to deliver diagnosis even on pregnant women, who gestate a fetus/fetuses harboring a possible anatomic defect in the urinary system. Some of the most common defects are: transient dilatation (mild hydronephrosis) principally in the upper urinary system, vesicoureteric reflux and vesicoureteric junction obstruction. Less common defects include: dysplastic kidneys, congenital solitary kidney, ectopic kidney and horseshoe kidney. All the aforementioned predispose the infant or child for urinary tract infections; this is why the Pediatric Nephrologist advises on all precautions during early infancy. In some of the above conditions, it is possible that surgical intervention may be required and should such a case arise, collaboration with the Pediatric Urologist is deemed imperative.
Another class of diseases requiring a Pediatric Nephrologist’s diagnosis and treatment are various glomerulopathies (glomerulonephritides, disorders of the renal tubule), some of which require further investigation and histological classification via renal biopsy, a technique also falling within a Pediatric Nephrologist’s field of expertise. Other pathologies requiring pediatric nephrology assessment and close monitoring are: hematuria (albuminuria, hypertension, hypercalciuria, metabolic acidosis and hypocitraturia.
In a nutshell, glomerulopathies, asymptomatic hematuria or albuminoria, specific urinary tract infections, systemic diseases exhibiting symptoms originating also from the kidneys (angiitis, lupus erythematosus), hereditatry renal disorders, nephrolithiasis and hypertension are the most common issues dealt with by a Pediatric Nephrologist, aiming at the timely diagnostic and therapeutic approach to prevent renal failure.
The Department of Pediatric Nephrology at IASO Children’s Hospital performs laboratory investigations (biochemistry, metabolism, immunology, microbiology, radiology and nuclear medicine) or any other type of investigation (renal biopsy) pertaining to the above pediatric urinary system disorders.